The Genealogical Adventure and Incredible Heritage of Dr. Watson

 

 

By F. Burkle-Young

 

            When viewers see episodes of the television series "Sherlock Holmes," with Ronald Howard as Holmes and Howard Marion-Crawford as Dr. Watson, they may recall that Holmes was the son of the distinguished actor, Leslie Howard. They may not know, however, that Dr. Watson was the product of perhaps the most distinguished lineage ever to have produced a man of the theater, or that he was, in the historical if not the physical sense, more an American than an Englishman.

            Our story begins with the family of  Gabriel Marion, a native of Poitou born in the early 1690's who emigrated to South Carolina as a young man with his father, Benjamin.  About 1711, he married Charlotte Esther Cordes, the daughter of Dr. Antoine Cordes, a noted physician in coastal Carolina at the time. Not very long after their marriage, they settled at Goatfield Plantation in Berkeley County, South Carolina. Here they raised six children, Esther, Isaac, Gabriel, Benjamin, Job, and, most notably, Francis — a seventh child died in infancy. The youngest, Francis Marion, is the celebrated "Swamp Fox" of the Revolutionary War, perhaps the deep South's most famous hero of that conflict.[1]

            General Francis Marion's exploits are too well known to need elaboration here, especially his guerrilla campaign of 1780-1781 which ensured the ultimate victory of the American forces in the south.[2] After the end of the war, now more than fifty, he married his wealthy cousin, Mary Esther Videau, in April, 1786.[3] He and his wife had no children, so when he died, February 27, 1795, the legacy of his name was left to his nieces and nephews.

            His elder sister, Esther, is the next step in the adventure. She first married John Allston, to whom she bore six children before his death in 1751.[4] Soon after Allston's death, she married Thomas Mitchell. Before his death, in 1768, she bore another five children, three daughters and two sons. The fourth child and youngest daughter of this second family was Sarah Marion Mitchell, who was born in Georgetown, South Carolina, in 1761. When she was eighteen, she married Dr. William Alexander Hyrne, a Charlestonian who had served under Washington.[5] She and Dr. Hyrne had two children who died in infancy. Hyrne, born in 1754, did not long survive his children. He died about 1789, because Sarah had been a widow for four years when she married Benjamin Clarke Cutler on January 9, 1794.[6]

            Cutler, himself a widower with a small daughter, was the sheriff of Norfolk County, Massachusetts.[7] His paternal antecedents were Dutch, rather than the English origins that his name might imply. His great-grandfather, Dr. Johannes Demesmaker, a surgeon, had arrived on American shores in 1674.[8] Soon afterward, he moved to Hingham, Massachusetts, the town founded by Samuel Lincoln, a native of Hingham in Norfolk. He then became one of the earliest Americans to adopt the custom of Anglicizing his name to blend more smoothly into the society of his neighbors — now he was Dr. John Cutler. For many years in Hingham, his neighbor to the south was Thomas Lincoln, one of Samuel's sons.[9] Another neighbor was Thomas' brother, Mordecai, the great-great-great-grandfather of the president.[10]

            With the marriage of Benjamin Clarke Cutler and Sarah Marion Mitchell the geography of the tale moves to New England. In their sixteen year marriage, the couple had five children — three daughters and two sons.[11] In the early nineteenth century, the most noted of these was the third child and eldest son, Benjamin Clarke Cutler II (1798-1863), who became the rector of Saint Anne's Church in Brooklyn and one of the most famous preachers of his day.[12] But our story continues with the life of Julia Rush Cutler, the second child and second daughter. She was born in 1796 and named in honor of a family friend, Julia Stockton Rush.[13] Well educated and strong-minded, she was a young beauty when young Samuel Ward III won her hand and married her, on October 8, 1812. The wedding was the event of the fall season in Boston, for Ward was the most eligible man about town and Julia, just sixteen, was herself a major catch.

            Samuel Ward brings to our adventure a heritage no less distinguished than Julia's. The Ward dynasty of Rhode Island begins with Thomas Ward, who settled in Newport in 1671. His son, Richard (born April 15, 1689), like his father, also became a merchant. He became attorney general of Rhode Island (1712-1713); a deputy and clerk of the Rhode Island Assembly (1714); recorder of Rhode Island (1714-1730); deputy governor (May-July 1740); and governor for three terms (July 15, 1740 - May, 1743). He died in 1763.[14] Richard's son, Samuel Ward the Elder (born May 25, 1725), became one of the most important figures in the history of Rhode Island. A graduate of Harvard College in 1733, he was elected in 1756 as the representative of Westerly to the Rhode Island Assembly, in which he served until 1759. He was elected governor in May, 1762; and reelected in 1765. His higher fame began in his second term, when he was the only colonial governor to refuse to take the oath to support and enforce the Stamp Act. He was elected governor for the third time in 1766. He was a major founder of Rhode Island College, later Brown University, and served as a trustee of the college from 1764 to 1776. In the years following his governorship, he became a strong and vocal opponent of British attempts to rule the colonies more forcefully. In consequence, he was appointed a delegate to both the First and Second Continental Congresses. He was always called to the chair when Congress went into a Committee of the Whole; and he was chairman of the committee that chose George Washington as commander of the Continental Army. He was a supporter of independence from the earliest days of the movement, but, early in March, 1776, he contracted smallpox, and died March 26, 1776, before the Declaration of Independence was passed.  The entire membership of the Congress attended his funeral. He married Anne Ray, daughter of Simon Ray III, a member of the leading family of Block Island, and his wife, Deborah Greene, a member of the other great Rhode Island dynasty.[15]

            The great governor's son, Samuel Ward the Younger (born November 17, 1756), was one of the earliest graduates of Rhode Island College. In 1775, he became a captain in the First Rhode Island Regiment and was present at the siege of Quebec, where he was captured, on December 31, 1775. Released in August, 1776, he was promoted to the rank of major five months later. He fought at Morristown and Saratoga; and then was at Valley Forge in the terrible winter of 1777-1778. On April 12, 1779, he was made a lieutenant colonel following his attempt to drive the British from Newport. In 1781, he left the army and began a career as a merchant. In 1788, he was in Canton as one of the first American visitors to that port; and, in 1792-1973, he was in Paris at the time of the trial and execution of Louis XVI. In leaving Paris for the last time, he was said by his family to have helped an aristocrat escape from the city by using him as his coachman — anticipating the story of The Scarlet Pimpernel by more than a century. He died in New York on August 16, 1832.[16]

            Colonel Ward married his first cousin, Phebe Greene, daughter of William Greene the Younger, the second governor of Rhode Island after independence. This marriage tightened further the kinship among the Wards, Greenes, and Rays — the three most prominent Rhode Island families of the eighteenth century.

            The founder of the Greene family in America was Dr. John Greene, the son of Richard Greene, of Bowridge Hall in Dorset. He arrived in 1635 and settled in Salem. Two years later, he moved to Providence, Rhode Island, where he was one of the original settlers. Later, he helped to found Warwick, which he represented in the Rhode Island Assembly on several occasions.[17]  John's son, John Greene the Younger, was deputy governor of Rhode Island from 1690 to 1700; while his son, Samuel, served in the Assembly for a number of terms between 1704 and 1719. Samuel married Mary Gorton, granddaughter of Samuel Gorton (1592-1677), the principal founder of Warwick, Rhode Island, and the leader of the Gortonists who were the colonizers of the Providence Plantation.[18]

            Their son was William Greene the Elder. He was born in Warwick, Rhode Island on March 16, 1695. In 1718, he was made a freeman of the colony; and was deputy from Warwick in 1727, 1732, 1736, 1738 and 1740. In 1728, he was appointed a surveyor of the border between Connecticut and Rhode Island; and, in 1736, he received a similar appointment. He was deputy-governor of Rhode Island in 1740-1742 and in 1743; and then governor in 1743, 1744, 1746, 1748-1754, and in 1757, for a total of eleven years. He married to Catharine, daughter of

Benjamin Greene. He died in Providence on February 22, 1758.[19]

            His son, William Greene the Younger, was born in Warwick, Rhode Island, on August 16, 1731. He was admitted as a freeman of the colony in May, 1753; and was deputy from Warwick in 1773, 1774, 1776, and 1777. In August, 1776, he became the first associate justice in the superior court of the colony. On December 10, 1776, he was appointed to the council of war. In February, 1778, he became chief-justice of the superior court. In the following May, he became the second governor of Rhode Island after independence, in which office he served until 1786. He died in Warwick on November 29, 1809. His wife was Catherine, daughter of Simon and Deborah Greene Ray of Block Island.[20]

            Their daughter was Phebe, whose aunt, Anne Ray, was the mother of her husband, Colonel Samuel Ward.[21] The two were married on March 8, 1778. Their fifth child, but second to survive, Samuel Ward III, was born May 1, 1786. With this heritage of Wards, Greenes, and Rays, and all the fame, wealth, privilege, and connection that it implied, we can understand readily why his marriage to Julia Rush Cutler was the event of the season in 1812 in Boston.

            Samuel Ward III was not a man to pass through life sustained only by the reputation and accomplishments of his ancestors. His family already had produced statesmen, military heroes, and great religious thinkers, so he would win fame in an entirely new arena — he would become America's most accomplished man of business in his time.

            He was still just a boy when a family friend asked him what he intended to do with his life. Young Sam immediately replied, "I mean to be one of the first bankers in the United States!" — a promise he kept.[22]

            In 1800, at the age of fourteen, he began his career as a clerk in the offices of Prime and Sands. Eight years later, he became a full partner, and the firm became Prime, Ward and Sands (afterwards Prime, Ward and King). In 1828, he helped to found the New York Historical Society; and two years later, in 1830, he was one of the founders of what is now New York University. In 1836, he was a founder of the Stuyvesant Institute, a literary club that was modeled on the Boston Athenaeum. In the financial crisis of 1836-1837, Ward displayed his greatest act of patriotism. When the banks in New York suspended specie payments on May 10, 1837, the ensuing panic was stemmed by Ward, who arranged, on the pledge of his word and that of his firm, Prime, Ward and King, for a five million dollar loan, tendered in gold bars, from the Bank of England. Backed by this loan, the banks resumed specie payments in May, 1838. In the following year, he became president of the Bank of Commerce, fulfilling the promise he had made so readily in childhood. He died Nov. 27, 1839.[23]

            Julia Rush Cutler Ward died on November 11, 1824, little more than a month after her twelfth wedding anniversary. In the years of her marriage, she bore seven children, of whom four survived into full maturity — one son, Samuel Ward IV (1814-1884), and three daughters, Julia (1819-1910), Louisa Cutler (1823-1897), and Anne Eliza (1824-1895).[24]

            With all their advantages of birth, wealth, and upbringing, it is not surprising that two of these four children would go on to become fully individualized geniuses of their age.

            Samuel , who received his Ph. D. from the University of Tubingen, went on to amass a fortune in real estate in California during the gold rush, and finally, as "Uncle Sam Ward, the King of the Lobby," played a major rôle in the political life of the nation in the period of the Civil War.[25]

            And Julia, who married Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe in 1843 and raised six children in a very unhappy marriage, but continued with her writing which she had begun in childhood. An ardent abolitionist, she later became one of the founders of American feminism.[26] Of all her writing, today she is best remembered as the author of "The Battle Hymn of the Republic."[27]

            But our adventure continues with a less-well-known figure, Louisa Cutler Ward. Little more than a year old when her mother died, she grew up in the large house her father had built, always called "The Corner," at the intersection of Bond Street and Broadway. Under the tutelage of her aunt, Eliza Cutler, she blossomed into a particularly gracious and winning girl. Her education was to be finished with a European tour which, by early 1843, brought her to Rome, to join the Howes who were then staying there.[28]

            Here she met Thomas Gibson Crawford, the thirty-year-old Irish-American prodigy in sculpture. She certainly knew of him and his work, for Julia Ward's study in "The Corner" was equipped with marble mantelpieces which had come from his chisel.[29] Crawford began to court the charming Miss Ward, who was ten years his junior, and, on November 2, 1844, they were married in New York. Now the heritage of statecraft, military glory, and business acumen was wedded to a romantic ideal of artistic genius.

            Thomas Gibson Crawford was born in New York City, on March 22, 1813, the son of Aaron Crawford and his wife, Mary Gibson.[30] He apprenticed himself, at the age of nineteen, to the firm of Frazee and Launitz, the principal monument makers in New York. As he grew more ambitious to exercise his talent, he decided to study in Rome, for which he departed in May, 1835 — and where he remained for most of the rest of his life.

            After some study under Bertel Thorwaldsen, the great champion of Neoclassicism, he began to solicit commissions of his own and soon became recognized as a leading American genius. Crawford's first major independent work, Orpheus and Cerberus (1838-43, Boston Athenaeum), was based on the Apollo Belvedere, and was the first sculptured male nude to be exhibited in the United States. From that time forward, he always had more commissions than he could execute, which sapped his energy and perhaps shortened his life. In 1855, he received his last and greatest commission, for the statue "Armed Freedom" which crowns the dome of the United States Capitol. At a time when American Neoclassical sculpture is nearly in total eclipse, "Armed Freedom" remains one of the most widely recognized works in bronze in America — and for it Thomas Crawford always will be remembered.[31]

            He had completed all but a few details of the plaster model when he was taken ill with what proved to be his last illness. He died in London, where he had gone for medical treatment, on October 10, 1857.[32]

            During the years of their marriage, the Crawfords lived at the Villa Negroni.[33] The large Renaissance structure provided the family with ample living quarters, and Thomas with many rooms that he used as studios for the large number of projects he always had in hand. Here, their three elder children were born, all daughters — Anne ("Annie," born 1846), Jennie ("Piccola," born 1847), and Mary ("Mimoli," born 1851).[34] Their fourth child and only son would have been born there, too, but for the fact that Thomas took his family out of Rome every summer, to escape both the heat and the recurrent epidemics that plagued the city. Consequently, Francis Marion Crawford was born at Bagni di Lucca on August 2, 1854.[35] In spite of worldly comfort, and a social and cultural education hardly eclipsed in that time, F. Marion Crawford — the name under which he would later become best known — did not have a smooth childhood. The chief element of his early life was a type of cultural dislocation. The Crawfords were stubbornly American Victorian at home, while the culture of the times in Rome was Italian Romantic. Nothing shows this better, perhaps, than the assortment of nicknames the boy received: Frank, Frankino, Frankie, and Francesco.[36] Then, after his father's death when he was three, there was Louisa's formal mourning, followed by a long courtship by Luther Terry, expatriate painter and close friend of both Crawfords. Louisa finally married him on September 21, 1861, in Rome.[37]

            In 1866, when he was twelve, Louisa sent her son to the United States to attend the newly-established St. Paul's School in Concord, New Hampshire, and to stay with his Aunt Julia when school was not in session.[38] This regimen lasted for three years, then he returned to Italy and persuaded his mother not to force his return to St. Paul's and to abandon her plans for him to attend Harvard. Formal education was now abandoned for a time, but later he spent brief periods at Trinity College, Oxford (1873-1874), the Technische Hochschule in Karlsruhe (1874-1875), the University of Heidelberg (1875-1877), and the University of Rome (1877-1878) — where he spent his time in an intensive study of Sanskrit, to add to a linguistic fluency that included English, Italian, German, French, Turkish, Russian, Latin, and Greek.[39] Still without a firm plan for a career, Crawford went to India in early 1879, and there found his first real employment, as editor of the Indian Herald at Allahabad. After a year, he returned to Rome, and then journeyed onward to visit his mother and his uncle, Samuel Ward IV, in New York. With the encouragement of his uncle, he began to write occasional pieces and to give public lectures. In 1882, he wrote his first novel, Mr. Isaacs: A Tale of Modern India, which was completed in June.[40] The experience of writing fiction was a revelation. With a firm outline of the plot in mind, it had taken him only a few weeks to complete the entire novel. The direction of his life as a writer was now clear. In the next twenty-seven years, he wrote forty-four novels, as well as two plays, six non-fictional works, and dozens of short stories and journal articles.[41] By the time he had established his methods fully, it often took him days, not weeks, to write a novel. All through the 1880's, he perfected both his technique and his style, and his popularity as a writer of avowedly Romantic fiction seemed to have no limit. In spite of his Mozartean rate of composition, much of his work was quite good — pleasing the critics as well as the public. In the 1890's and the early twentieth century, he was judged to be in the same select class of American writers as William Dean Howells, Mark Twain, and Henry James, and his books regularly outsold the works of the others.[42] Romantic fiction in the English-speaking world is no longer academically or critically popular, and Crawford's public reputation has sunk considerably in the twentieth century, but his influence on later writers, while generally subtle, is not without weight. Most of his work is set in nineteenth-century Italy, the culture and society he knew best. Beyond the first three volumes of his Saracinesca tetrology (Saracinesca,  Sant'Ilario, and Don Orsino), which often are regarded as his greatest writing, he contributed, in the fourth volume, both a background and a family to the first serious literary work to deal with the Mafia, from which characters, scenes, and extensions would be taken up by other writers — Corleone: A Tale of Sicily, one of his greatest successes.[43]

            Following his recent conversion to Catholicism, and early unhappy romances, Crawford moved slowly in his courtship of Elizabeth Christophers Berdan, the daughter of General Hiram Berdan. Her lineage of Berdans, Kimballs, and Huntingtons was as distinguished as Crawford's own. In particular, her father was another of those remarkable nineteenth-century American geniuses whose accomplishments were as well known as those of Thomas Crawford.

            Hiram Berdan was born in Phelps, New York, on September 6, 1824, the third of six

children. He attended Hobart College for a time and then became an apprentice in a threshing machine company. A native mechanical genius, Berdan soon made significant improvements in the design and operation of the mechanical threshing machine and formed his own company, in 1847, to manufacture and market his improved device. In addition, he invented a gold-ore separator, a collapsible life boat, and a mechanical bakery. By selling the rights to manufacture these, Berdan became a millionaire. As his keen brain and steady vision made him a success in

business, his keen eye and steady hand made him a champion sharpshooter, with a national reputation. At the beginning of the Civil War, Berdan offered to raise a corps of expert marksmen. When he began to recruit, the enthusiastic reaction allowed him to form not one but two regiments, the First and Second New York Sharpshooters, the first organized sniper units in history. Dressed in plain green uniforms -- the first modern example of camouflage -- armed with Sharps breechloading rifles, and fighting in skirmishes, Berdan's men were among the outstandingly successful combat soldiers of the War. He was not highly admired, however, either by his men, who understood his lack of actual military experience and training, or by his superiors, who disapproved both of his orders to shoot officers first and his habit of commanding from the rear, both of which were contrary to the customs of war at that time. He was wounded slightly at Second Bull Run in 1862, but went on to distinction at Chancellorsville (May 1-3, 1863), for which he was later made a brigadier general, and to be one of the pivotal commanders at Gettysburg two months later, for which he received the rank of brevet major general. Soon afterward, he left the army and returned to his career as an inventor. Among his later accomplishments were the Berdan primer, still widely used today, and the Type-1 and Type-2 Berdan rifles. He died in Washington on March 31, 1893, and was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.[44]

            General Berdan's wife, Mary Marsh Kimball, who was twenty when he married her in December, 1854, was from a distinguished family herself. Her father, Elijah Huntington Kimball, was the son of Richard Kimball the Younger (1768-1860), who was a major force in the design and construction of the Middlesex Canal, from Boston to Lowell, the first major canal in this country to be completed. Later, as a friend of De Witt Clinton, he also provided significant practical advice in constructing the Erie and Champlain Canals. Richard's mother, Abigail Huntington Kimball, was the sister of Samuel Huntington (1731-1796), who was a delegate from Connecticut to the Second Continental Congress, a signer of the Declaration of  Independence, president of the Congress from September 28, 1779, to July 6, 1781; then Chief Justice of Connecticut in 1784, lieutenant governor in 1785, and governor of Connecticut from 1786 to his death in 1796.[45]

            The formal engagement of Marion Crawford to Bessie Berdan took place at Pera, Istanbul, in the first days of July, 1884. They were married in the French Catholic church there on the following October 11.[46] After the wedding, the bride and groom returned to Rome for what was to be a brief visit before going on to America. They stayed with his mother and step-father in the Palazzo Altemps, which Luther Terry had rented some years before.[47] Soon, Bessie Crawford became so enamored of life in Italy that the plans for America were abandoned.

            Marion now began to search for a permanent home for himself and his wife. In the summer of 1885, the couple spent the season at Sorrento. The attraction of the area was so great that they began to look for a house there. Soon, they discovered the Villa de Renzis, at Sant'Agnello di Sorrento, perched on a  bluff that overlooked the Bay of Naples. Marion bought the property from the Renzi family, rechristened the house Villa Crawford, and moved in with Bessie.[48] There, on February 24, 1886, the eldest of their four children, Eleanor, was born.[49] At that time, he changed his surname to Marion-Crawford, a usage some of his descendants have kept, while others have not.[50]

            In the early, happier years of his marriage, three more children followed: Harold, the elder son (born February 1, 1888), and the twins, Bertram and Clare (born April 16, 1890).[51]

            By the end of the 1880's, Crawford's marriage was strained and he began to spend more and more time away from his home: at his retreat at Torre San Nicola, near Sorrento; sailing on his various yachts, the last and most famous of which was the Alda; and on frequent trips to the United States, most of which were connected with the legal difficulties of the Berdan Fire Arms Manufacturing Company. By the early years of the twentieth century, he was in increasingly ill health, from a condition that he called asthma, but which probably was tuberculosis. He died of a heart attack at the Villa Crawford on April 9, 1909. His last distinction was that his coffin was borne away by the crew of the Alda, up the Corso Marion Crawford, which Sorrento had named for him some years before.[52]

            One of the many vexations of Crawford's later years was the future of his son, Harold Marion-Crawford. It always had been his father's intention that both of his sons should go to Oxford, but Bessie intervened strongly, insisting that Harold have an American education.[53] Harold entered Harvard in 1907, but he was not academically inclined and produced only a meagre record.[54] He left Harvard without taking a degree, however he is commemorated as a member of the class of 1911 in the Harvard Memorial Church.[55]

            Like his father before him, Harold sought adventure and experience in the Far East. Through family connections in London, he obtained a post as a rubber planter on a plantation in the Malay Peninsula. He had been out in the East only a short time when he chanced to see a musical comedy revue in Kuala Lumpur, put on by a company that toured the Far East. In the chorus, he first saw Nina Noreen Leslie Wood. His courtship was swift and ardent — no more than a few days — and they were married by a magistrate in Singapore on the afternoon of March 30, 1911. Their honeymoon was brief, because the new Mrs. Crawford had to leave in a few days for performances in Hong Kong and Shanghai.[56] Later, they were reunited in London, where their only child, Howard Francis Marion-Crawford, was born on January 17, 1914. His middle name, Francis, was for his paternal grandfather; his first name, Howard commemorated his father's long -dead uncle, of romanticized memory, Howard Berdan.[57] As the years would reveal, he was now the sole heir in his generation to the great assembly of his family's traditions and distinction.

            The happy life of the little family was soon as destroyed, as was that of so many families, with the outbreak of World War I on August 1, 1914. As soon as hostilities began, Harold sought a commission in the Irish Guards, choosing that regiment perhaps because of the origins of his great-grandfather, Aaron Crawford, the father of the sculptor. As a second lieutenant, he was gazetted to the Regiment's Special Reserve of Officers and was attached to Company 3, First Battalion, as the brigade bombing instructor. On April 16, 1915, while stationed near Givenchy, France, he was training some men of the Fourth Brigade, Third Battalion, of the Coldstream Guards, in the proper technique for throwing hand grenades when one exploded and killed him.[58]

            The young widow devoted herself to the care of her son until he was old enough to be sent to school at Clifton College, at Clifton on the outskirts of Bristol. Sir John Betjeman described its setting as "the handsomest suburb in Europe."[59] In the small number of years that Howard attended Clifton, the school became a nursery for noted men of the theater — Sir Michael Redgrave was a year or two ahead of him, Trevor Howard was a classmate.[60]

            Once Howard was ensconced for most of the year at school, Nina felt free to marry again. In November 4, 1925, she wed another war hero, Lieutenant Colonel George Rowlandson Crosfield, at the Brompton Parish Church.[61] Howard's new step-father was a bluff, hearty man who had lost a leg in the war but still played a vigorous game of golf.[62] Perhaps Crawford's later characterizations of loud, old-school, British officers in several films owed something to the personality of his step-father.

            During his years at Clifton, Howard Marion-Crawford fixed his intention to spend his life in the theater. When he left Clifton, he went up to London to enter the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. Here, he entered into the life he would follow for the next thirty-seven years. At RADA, his classmates included Vivien Leigh, Ida Lupino, Anthony Quayle, and his old classmate, Trevor Howard. In 1935, he began his career by taking rôles in both radio and film — although it is for his work in radio that he is perhaps best remembered in Britain today.

            His debut on screen came with the part of Max — for which he received fifth billing — in Michael Balcon's production of Brown on Resolution, directed by Walter Forde.[63] The film was based on C. S. Forester's novel of the same name.[64] It is a naval tale of World War I in which a young leading seaman, Albert Brown (one of the earliest starring rôles for Sir John Mills), survives the battle between his armored cruiser, H. M. S. Charybdis, and the German battlecruiser, S. M. S. Ziethen. The Germans rescue Brown and two others after Charybdis is sunk, but Brown escapes from the Ziethen, taking a Mauser rifle with him, when the Germans put in at Resolution Island, at the east end of Hudson Strait, to repair battle damage. Brown is an expert sharpshooter, who now methodically prevents the Germans from repairing their ship, until, just as he dies, the British arrive to destroy it. The twist, which only the audience understands, is that Albert actually is the illegitimate son of the British commander who wins the final victory. Perhaps Crawford was just lucky in landing his first film rôle, but perhaps he sought a part in the film because the formal discipline of military sharpshooting, the premise of the action in both novel and film, was invented by his great-grandfather, Hiram Berdan, in the American Civil War.

            Between 1935 and 1941, he appeared in five more films: Music Hath Charms, one of the first British musicals, developed as a vehicle for Henry Hall, once the very popular conductor of the BBC Dance Orchestra; The Guv'nor, in which his part was uncredited; 13 Men and a Gun, as Kramer; Night Train to Munich, also uncredited, in which he played the bullying Schutzstaffeln officer who checks travel papers at the railway station; and Freedom Radio.[65]

            But it was in radio that he earned his public fame. In dozens of programs, in hundreds of episodes, he came to be considered the most versatile voice of his time. For one serial, he played no fewer than five parts. In this tour de force, he played an officer in the Royal Air Force, a Cornish publican, an African-American, and a Burmese girl, in addition to an English rôle with standard diction.[66]

            With the outbreak of World War II, he abandoned nearly all performance. He first joined the Irish Guards, his father's old regiment, but soon suffered a major injury to one of his legs that caused him to be invalided out of the service. After he recovered, he enlisted again, this time in the Royal Air Force, where he became a navigator, and rose to the rank of sergeant.[67]

            Early in the war, he met and married his first wife, Jeanne Scott-Gunn, and settled down in an elegant flat in Kensington, at 7 Knaresborough Place. There, on May 10, 1942, his elder son, Harold Francis Marion-Crawford, was born.[68] By that time, the actor's marriage to Jeanne was painfully strained, and, within two years, it was over.

            Shortly afterward, he met his second wife, a young radio actress named Mary Wimbush. In spite of a ten-year difference in their ages, they were married on June 29, 1946, after a brief courtship.[69] A year later, they, too, had a son, named Charles.[70] And, eventually, they also were divorced.

            Nevertheless, it was in these years that he moved to some degree in the higher reaches of English society, perhaps because his Uncle Bertram had married a granddaughter of the seventh earl of Harrington, perhaps through friendships he had made at Clifton College. He numbered Winston Churchill among his friends. Sometimes, in the Atlee years, Howard would journey out to Chequers for an afternoon playing chess with Churchill, outdoors on a table set up on the front lawn.[71]

            Even with the best contacts, it was difficult for Marion-Crawford to restart his career in the straitened years of early post-war Britain. In retrospect, his career at the end of the '40's is notable chiefly for his appearance as Sherlock Holmes in a radio production of "The Adventure of the Speckled Band" that was broadcast on the BBC Home Service on the afternoon of December 27, 1948, with Finlay Currie as Dr. Watson.[72] His other radio work in these years is now largely forgotten, although it kept him busy and brought him national recognition. In 1953, he won the Daily Mail's National Radio Award as the outstanding radio actor for 1952-1953.[73] By contrast to his well-regarded radio work, the fifteen films in which he appeared between 1945 and 1954 afforded him only small parts with little recognition.[74]

            But now the zenith of his acting career was at hand. In the summer of 1954, the American producer, Sheldon Reynolds, approached him to play the part of Dr. Watson in a new television series of thirty-nine episodes that was to be filmed in France. This was to be Crawford's first effort in the still-new medium of television, and he eagerly accepted the offer. In spite of the low budget, Reynolds had assembled a sterling team for his new effort.[75] As his associate producer, he had Nicole Millinaire, later the Duchess of Bedford, who was not only an astute manager but socially well connected, too.[76] For his production manager, he recruited Sacha Kamenka, already well-trained in French film-making, who would later win fame for his work on Hiroshima mon amour (1959). And among his stable of directors was the talented Steve Previn, the younger brother of Andre Previn, who had already worked for Reynolds on a number of episodes of Foreign Intrigue. The theme music, “Baker Street Sketches,” was written by the popular French orchestra leader, Paul Jules Durand.[77]

            With Ronald Howard, the son of Leslie Howard, as Holmes, and Archie Duncan as Lestrade (and as a number of other characters in episodes where Lestrade did not appear), filming began in the summer of 1954. The production schedule was very fast, although the final day of shooting is no longer known.

            On Monday, October 18, 1954, at 7:00 P. M., came the debut, under the series title The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes.[78] The first episode, "The Case of the Cunningham Heritage," was broadcast over the NBC network, through the facilities of WRCA, channel four, in New York.[79] The first night's viewers quickly discerned a low-budget production that relied on interiors almost exclusively — although distinctly Late Victorian interiors, as opposed to the more modern, and uncanonical rooms occupied so often by Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce. Older, and perhaps more socially and theatrically sophisticated, members of the audience, however, recognized an ensemble that embodied the richest possible artistic and theatrical heritage of the time. In addition to Ronald Howard, with his relationship to a large and famous performing family, of which his father, Leslie Howard, had been the chief representative, there were Howard Marion-Crawford — whose descent from F. Marion-Crawford was generally known — Meg Lemonnier, a legend as a unique chanteuse, on stage and in many French films; Pierre Gay, well known as the French translator of Noel Coward's play, Present Laughter; and Ursula Howells, who was perhaps the first serious actress to gain her fame primarily through the medium of television, and who also was the daughter of the most significant British choral composer of the twentieth century.[80] Archie Duncan and Richard Larke completed the cast.

            The action starts with the meeting of Holmes and Watson, following quite closely the essential points in A Study in Scarlet, but the ensuing investigation of murder is entirely non-canonical.[81] Lestrade is wrong in his suspicions, of course, and Holmes solves the case by realizing the significance of the fresh cut in the carpet, the checkbook, and the height of the dead man.

            Crawford's portrayal of Watson bows only distantly, and somewhat coldly, to the good-natured buffoonery of Nigel Bruce — the standard for the part for the preceding two decades. Instead, he presents a personality that seems to be more equal to Holmes'. It is sometimes difficult to believe that Nigel Bruce came through medical school with good credentials and then served to his credit in war; it is not troubling to imagine Marion-Crawford doing these things.

            The second week's episode, "The Case of Lady Beryl," was broadcast one week later, with Paulette Goddard, that remarkable Oscar-winner who had been Mrs. Charles Chaplin and would be Madame Erich Maria Remarque, in the title rôle.

            Unlike modern series, with their frequent repeats and lapses for other programming, The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes continued to offer new shows uninterruptedly every week through the broadcast of the twenty-second episode, "The Case of the Deadly Prophecy," on March 14, 1955. After two weeks of other programming on NBC, Sherlock Holmes resumed his new cases with "The Christmas Pudding" on April 4, and continued in fifteen new episodes through the thirty-seventh, "The Case of the Lucky Gambler," on July 18, 1955.

            NBC held back the final two episodes to maintain public interest in the series during the summer. After seven rebroadcasts of earlier adventures, "The Case of the Diamond Tooth" was shown on September 19; and, after three more repeats, the thirty-ninth and final episode, "The Case of the Tyrant's Daughter," closed the series just three hundred sixty-four days after the first program.[82]

            Contemporary reviews, although not unreservedly enthusiastic, generally praised the series; and the consensus of them was that Marion-Crawford's portrayal of Dr. Watson was an attractive, workmanlike job, equal to those who had played the part before. Later considerations of these shows have continued to regard these shows highly — and, if anything, Marion-Crawford's reputation has increased.[83] Time and the public have treated the series with equal kindness, for there have been repeated re-issues of the shows on tape in the past two decades, and they have been re-shown on a number of cable television channels, which testifies to a steady demand for them.

            Never again would Marion-Crawford receive so much public recognition, be billed so highly, or have as much steady, contractual work as he did in The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes. Indeed, with the eventual decline of radio, his volume of work lessened. Between 1956 and 1962, he appeared, sometimes not even credited, in no fewer than seventeen films.[84] In these, the rôles were small and the films themselves generally mediocre. A distinct exception was his brief time on screen as the Chief of Scotland Yard, opposite Jack Hawkins as Chief Inspector Gideon, in Gideon's Day, based on the first of the twenty-one books about Gideon by John Creasey, writing under the name J. J. Marric. Lovingly directed by the great John Ford, the film is perhaps the greatest British police procedural story ever filmed, and Marion-Crawford was at his best form for the few minutes in which he appeared.

            In 1957, also, he lent his voice to the English dubbing of Don Kikhot, the Russian retelling of Don Quixote that is regarded by many as the finest adaptation of Cervantes novel to the screen — directed by Grigori Kozintsev, and starring Nikolai Cherkasov.[85]

            Finally, in 1962, he achieved his greatest recognition in film when he was cast as the British medical officer in David Lean's Lawrence of Arabia. Robert Bolt gave that character two small, but memorable, scenes, and Marion-Crawford played them beautifully. In the first encounter with Lawrence (Peter O'Toole), the medical officer has entered the Turkish hospital in the newly-occupied Damascus to find it crammed with wounded and without even water for them. Brimming with take-charge efficiency, he looks around him at the filth and degradation, and exclaims, "This is outrageous, outrageous!" He then turns to Lawrence, clad in a dishdashah, calls him a "filthy little wog," and slaps him in the face.

            The second encounter, in the final moments of the film, occurs as Lawrence leaves his conference with Feisal and Allenby, dressed properly in his officer's uniform. As he moves through the large lobby towards his car, the medical officer meets him for the second time:

 

Medical Officer: I say, it's Lawrence, isn't it? (O'Toole nods)

  Well, may I shake your hand, sir? (He takes O'Toole's hand)

   Just want to be able to say I've done it, sir.

Lawrence: Haven't we met before?

Medical Officer: Don't think so, sir. Oh no, sir, I should remember that.

 

The completely-believable absolute lack of recognition may be Marion-Crawford's finest moment on screen.

            In the mid and later 1960's, in addition to small appearances in four films for general release, his television career began to revive slightly after a decade-long coma.[86] Between 1964 and 1968, he appeared in eight episodes of mystery or adventure shows: three episodes of The Avengers, three episodes of Danger Man, one episode of The Saint, and in the premiere of Man in a Suitcase.[87] In the same period, unfortunately, he did not add to his reputation by expanding his Watsonian person when he appeared as Dr. Petrie in five low-budget Fu Manchu films.[88]

            At last, in early 1969, he closed his career with his fiftieth and last film, Avalanche, another unremarkable, low-budget production, but one in which he received, for the first time, a top billing.[89]

            Most of his career in film and television after his portrayal of Dr. Watson was unremarkable, and often mediocre. He did have, however, two remarkable accomplishments, one in narration and one in radio performance.

            The Way of a Ship is a brief, twenty-minute travelogue that shows life aboard a luxury liner on a Mediterranean cruise. The film shows the crew's activities as well as the passengers sight-seeing in Majorca, Rhodes, Istanbul, Athens, Naples, and, most especially, Sorrento. Here, Marion-Crawford had his chance to speak about the geography and scenery his grandfather had loved so well. One can hope that he thought of F. Marion Crawford as he worked.[90]

            In radio, the supreme triumph of his life came in 1960 when he performed the title rôle in the Agamemnon of Æschylus. Paired with Margaret Rawlings as Clytemnestra, the performance was so powerful that the BBC Transcription Service decided to release it as a three-disc recording, which, it is sad to write, is almost impossible to find.[91] The power of his portrayal may owe something to his memories of his two failed marriages and his slipping career.

            After his performance in Avalanche was over, he returned again to London, to his flat in Chelsea. Although a heavy social drinker, he was by no means an alcoholic. He did, however, occasionally engage in bouts of binge drinking which sometimes lasted for as long as two days. On Monday, November 23, 1969, probably at home in the evening, he consumed about eight ounces of liquor and then, without alertness, took a sleeping pill, or, perhaps, two, before he retired. Sometime during the night, he had a reaction to the mixture of considerable alcohol and little barbiturate. As his body tried to purge itself by vomiting, he choked and died. On the morning of Sunday, the twenty-fifth, his body was discovered. Dr. Donald Teare, the pathologist who performed the autopsy on his remains, emphasized that the quantity of barbiturates in his body was not high, and there was no evidence at all of chronic alcoholism.[92] Contrary to the often-printed statement that he died from an "overdose of sleeping pills," with its implication of suicide, he did not.[93] Rather, what killed him was the bad luck of the Crawfords. His great-great-grandfather, Aaron Crawford, died at an indeterminate age, but was gone before his son married in 1844. His great-grandfather, Thomas Crawford, the great sculptor, died at forty-four. His grandfather, F. Marion Crawford, the novelist, died at fifty-four; while his father, Harold Marion-Crawford, was killed at twenty-seven — later, his elder son, also Harold Marion-Crawford, would die at thirty-three. Howard Marion-Crawford, our Dr. Watson, was fifty-five.

            Fourteen months later, when his will was probated, the public learned that Howard Marion-Crawford was a poor man. He had inherited none of the very considerable fortune left by his grandfather, and had done little but subsist during his thirty-four-year career in radio, television, and film. At his death, his whole monetary worth was only one thousand six hundred and nine pounds, all of which had been consumed swiftly in expenses after his death. His estate, as The Times put it, had a "net value nil."[94]

            With his death, a particularly important and remarkable dynasty of accomplishment also ended. All the specially-joined legacy of the Marions, Cutlers, Wards, Greenes, Berdans, and Crawfords lay with him in his grave.

 



[1]For the genealogical details, see Emma B Richardson, Dr. Anthony Cordes and Some of His Descendants ([n. p.]: G. S. McDowell, 1943), 90 leaves; reprinted from a series in The South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine, beginning with vol. 61, no. 1 (January, 1943). For a brief sketch of his life and career, see Allen Johnson, et al., eds, Dictionary of American Biography, 20 vols. (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1928-1936) XII (1933):283-284 [hereafter DAB].

[2]The best modern biography is Hugh F Rankin, Francis Marion: The Swamp Fox, in the series

Leaders of the American Revolution (New York: T. Y. Crowell, 1973), with an excellent bibliography.

[3]J. Russell Cross, Historic Ramblin's through Berkeley  ([Cross, South Carolina]: J. R. Cross, 1985; reprinted,

[Moncks Corner, South Carolina]: Berkeley County Historical Society, 2002) 280.

[4]John Allston's younger brother, William, married, as his second wife, Rachel Moore. They were the parents of Washington Allston (1779-1843), the Anglo-American historical painter and poet; the student of Benjamin West and friend of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Washington Allston married Martha Dana, the sister of Richard Henry Dana, the author of Two Years Before the Mast.

[5]The family legend that she was only fourteen when she married for the first time, and that she wept on her betrothal day because she was told that she had to abandon her dolls, seems unlikely. For details, see Laura E[lizabeth Howe] Richards and  Maud Howe Elliott, assisted by Florence Howe Hall,  Julia Ward Howe: 1819-1910, 2 vols. (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., The Riverside Press, Cambridge, 1916) I:13.

[6]ibid.

[7]ibid.  His first wife, Mary Sheafe, had died on October 6, 1788; his daughter, Mary Ann, was born July 25, 1786.

[8]ibid., and note 1.

[9]Hingham, Massachusetts, Record of Deeds, vol. 13, p. 22, abstract of a deed dated March 12, 1682/83, and recorded September 18, 1683. For a discussion of Cutler and his children, see Thomas Tracy Bouvé, Edward Tracy Bouvé, George Lincoln, et. al., History of the Town of Hingham, Massachusetts, 3 vols. in 4 ([Hingham, Massachusetts]: Published by the Town, 1893; volumes II and III, The Genealogies, by George Lincoln, reprinted Somersworth, New Hampshire: New England History Press, 1982) II: 150.

[10]The best record of the Lincoln family in Hingham remains George Lincoln's "Lincoln Family Genealogy," in the Illinois State Historical Library (ms., 2 vols.).

[11]He died in 1810, she in 1836. Their youngest child, and second son, was named Francis Marion Cutler, in honor of the Swamp Fox.

[12]He began as a clerk, but, after he was graduated from Brown in 1822, he studied theology and was ordained deacon in November, 1822. His first appointment was in Quincy, Massachusetts, where he remained about seven years. He then went south for his health, and spent the winter of 1830 in Savannah. After a year as rector of the Episcopal Church in Leesburg, Virginia, he took charge of the first City Mission of the Episcopal Church in New York. In April, 1833, he became rector of Saint Anne's Church, in Brooklyn, where he spent the last thirty years of his life. For details, see Horatio Gray, Memoirs of Rev. Benjamin C. Cutler, D.D., Late Rector of St. Ann's Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. (New York: A. D. F. Randolph, 1865).

[13]Daughter of Richard Stockton of New Jersey, a Signer of the Declaration of Independence. and wife of Dr. Benjamin Rush, also a Signer and the most famous physician in eighteenth-century America. Rush, friend of Benjamin Franklin, epidemiologist, and public health official, among many things, needs no elaboration here. Stockton, by contrast, is much less well known. Richard Stockton (1730-1781) was born near Princeton, October 1, 1730. He became an associate justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court in 1774; and, two years later, a Delegate to the Continental Congress. He died February 28, 1781. For more about him and his remarkable family, see Thomas Coates Stockton, The Stockton Family of New Jersey and other Stocktons (Washington, D. C.: The Carnahan Press, 1911).

[14]DAB, XIX:434-435.

[15]DAB, XIX:437. The best biography thus far remains William Gammell, Life of Governor Samuel Ward, in vol. 9 of the Library of American Biography, second series, ed. by Jared Sparks (Boston: C. C. Little and J. Brown, 1846) 236-358.  See also John Ward, The Continental Congress before the Declaration of Independence:

With Memoirs of Gov. Samuel Ward and Lieut.-Col. Samuel Ward, 3 parts in 1 vol., reprinted from the Magazine of American History, beginning in April, 1878 (New York: n. p., 1878).

[16]DAB, XIX:437-438. For the anecdote of the departure from Paris, see Richards and Elliott, I:7. See also John Ward, A Memoir of Lieut.-Colonel Samuel Ward, First Rhode Island Regiment, Army of the American Revolution, with a Genealogy of the Ward Family, reprinted from the New York Genealogical and Biographical Record (July, 1875) VI:113-128 (New York: n. p., 1875).

[17]The best general account of the family and its importance in the history of Rhode Island is George Sears Greene, Louise Brownell Clarke, and F[rancis] V[inton] Greene, The Greenes of Rhode Island: with Historical Records of English Ancestry, 1534-1902 (New York: Knickerbocker Press, 1903). Another son of Dr. John Greene was James, the great-grandfather of Major General Nathaniel Greene, perhaps second only to Washington as a commander in the Revolutionary War.

[18]Gorton is, of course, another notable contributor to the heritage of the family. Sadly, too little scholarship has been devoted to him and his role in the early colonial experience in New England. The best sketch of his life probably is Adelos Gorton, The Life and Times of Samuel Gorton: The Founders and the Founding of the Republic, A Section of Early United States History and a History of the Colony of Providence and Rhode Island Plantations in the Narragansett Indian Country, Now the State of Rhode Island, 1592-1636-1677-1687 (Philadelphia: [G. S. Ferguson Co.], 1907. For the genealogy of the Gorton family and the relationship of the Greenes, see Thomas Gorton, Samuel Gorton of Rhode Island and His Descendants (Baltimore: Gateway Press, 1982). For a consideration of Gorton's Puritan ideals, see Philip F. Gura, "The Radical Ideology of Samuel Gorton:

New Light on the Relation of English to American Puritanism," The William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., v. 36, (January, 1979) 78-100. See also Lewis G[eorge] Janes,  "Samuell Gorton of Rhode Island: A Study in Colonial History," New England Magazine and Bay State Monthly, n. s., v. 18, n. 3 (May, 1898) 287-305.

[19]DAB, 7:575-576.

[20]DAB, 7:576-577; and the extensive obituary in the Providence Gazette, December 2, 1809.

[21]Phebe Greene Ward was born March 20, 1760, and died September 11, 1828. In addition to the young couple's descent from Samuel Gorton, they gave to their son a double descent from Roger Williams, founder of Rhode Island. Roger's daughter, Mary (1633-1681) married John Sayles ((1633-1681). Their daughter, Phebe Sayles (died 1744) married Job Greene (1656-1745). Their daughter, Deborah Greene (1689-1763), married Simon Ray (born 1672). Of that marriage, one daughter, Anne, was the mother of Colonel Samuel Ward; while another daughter, Catherine, was the mother of Phebe Greene Ward.

[22]Richards and Elliott, I:16.

[23]DAB, XIX:438-439.

[24]An earlier daughter Julia died at the age of three; while two sons, Henry Ward (1816-1840) and Francis Marion Ward (1820-1847), died in young manhood. The only history of the intertwined lives of all four of the surviving siblings is Louise Hall Tharp, Three Saints and a Sinner: Julia Ward Howe, Louisa, Annie, Sam Ward (Boston: Little Brown, 1956). Before passing beyond Julia Rush Cutler Ward, it worth noting that the distinction of her ancestors meant a great deal to her. Once she was persuaded to attend an lecture in which the presenter waxed fulsome on the theme of the "bad old days" of less-than-satisfactory ancestry and heredity. When, at last, he concluded his remarks by saying, that he felt "bowed down beneath the burden of the sins of his ancestors,"

 Julia rose to her feet and proclaimed: "[The speaker] is bowed down by the sins of his ancestors. I wish to say that all my life I have been buoyed up and lifted on by the remembrance of the virtues of mine!"  (Richards and Elliott, I:3).

[25]He born in New York City, January 27, 1814; and died in Pegli, Italy, May 19, 1884. He was first sent to Round Hill School, in Northampton, Massachusetts, and then attended Columbia, from which he was graduated in 1831. He then went to Germany for further study, and received his Ph. D. from the University of Tubingen, becoming one of the first Americans to earn that degree. While he was in Europe, he traveled widely and became exceptionally proficient in several modern languages. When he returned, in 1835, he married and entered his father's banking-house as a partner. After a second marriage, in 1843, he left the firm, having lost the greatest part of his fortune through heedlessness. In 1848, he went to California, where he engaged in several businesses and amassed a second fortune. During his stay in the West, he mastered several Indian dialects. He visited Mexico in 1854, acted as secretary of an expedition sent by the United States government to Paraguay in 1858, and then went on a diplomatic mission to Nicaragua in 1862, to secure the renewal of transit across the isthmus. On his return from that trip, he finally settled in Washington, D. C.. Here, his genius at conversation, persuasive manners, and skill in entertaining soon made him "the King of the Lobby." The later years of his life were spent in Europe,

generally in England, where his social powers won him many friends. DAB, XIX: 439-440. For fuller details of this American polymath, see Lately Thomas, Sam Ward: King of the Lobby (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1965); and

Maud Howe Elliott, Uncle Sam Ward and His Circle (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1938; reprinted, New York: Arno Press, 1975).

[26]After the Civil War, she became involved in the Women's Suffrage movement. In 1868, she founded the New England Women's Club, and later, she, together with Lucy Stone, became leaders of the American Women's Suffrage Association. She was president of the Massachusetts Women Suffrage Association in 1870 - 1878 and 1891- 1893; and president of the New England Women's Suffrage Movement from 1868 to 1877, and from 1893 until her death. She also was a co-founder of the Association for the Advancement for Women; and helped to create the General Federation of Women's Clubs, and was their president in 1893. She also was the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters. DAB, IX;291-293. The standard biographies are Richards and Elliott, cited above; Deborah Pickman Clifford, Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory: A Biography of Julia Ward Howe (Boston: Little, Brown, 1979); and Mary Hetherington Grant, Private Woman, Public Person: An Account of the Life of Julia Ward Howe from 1819-1868 (Brooklyn, New York: Carlson Publishers, 1994).

[27]In November, 1861, Julia Ward Howe was touring Union army camps in the vicinity of Washington, D. C., with her husband, who a member of the Military Sanitary Commission. With them was Reverend James Freeman Clarke. During the course of their visit, the group began to sing some of the currently popular war songs, among them "John Brown's Body." James Clarke suggested that she write new lyrics to the familiar tune. The following morning, when she awakened, she composed the lyrics at once. The text first appeared on the front page of the Atlantic Monthly in February, 1862. Its editor, James T. Fields, paid her five dollars for the piece. He is credited with having given the song the name by which it is known today. See Richards and Elliott, I:189-190.

[28]John Pilkington, Jr., Francis Marion Crawford, no. 67 of Twayne's United States Authors Series (New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc., 1964) 18.

[29]Richards and Elliott, I:42, 95.

[30]There probably little value in the story that Thomas Crawford was born in Ireland, but his father certainly came from Ballyshanen in County Donegal. DAB, IV:524.

[31]Crawford planned that the 19.5-foot, 7.5-ton bronze figure would have a headdress of the soft cap, the "liberty cap," of freed Roman slaves. He substituted the present helmet with eagle head and feathers to satisfy the whim of Jefferson Davis, then Secretary of War, who had charge of the construction of the additions to the Capitol. The bronze casting from Crawford's original finally was done in October, 1862, by the foundry of Clark Mills. On December 2, 1863, the head of the statue, last of the five sections of the casting, was raised and bolted into place.

For more details on this and other works by Crawford in the Capitol, including the Senate Pediment, "The Progress of Civilization," and the bronze doors to the House and Senate wings, see Charles E Fairman, Art and Artists of the Capitol of the United States of America, Senate Document, 69th Congress, 1st session, no. 95

(Washington, D. C.: U. S. G. P. O. [United States Government Printing Office], 1927). For a discussion of the recent restoration of "Armed Freedom," see Elizabeth Walmsley, "Conservation of the Statue 'Freedom' from the United States Capitol," a report on a talk given by Barbara Wolanin and Linda Merk-Gould, in Washington Conservation Guild Newsletter, vol. 18, no. 1 (January, 1994).

[32]DAB, IV:524-527. The old standard biography remains valuable: Thomas Hicks, Thomas Crawford: His Career, Character, and Works (New York: Appleton, 1858). More recent scholarship includes Sylvia E. Crane, White Silence: Greenough, Powers, and Crawford, American sculptors in Nineteenth-Century Italy (Coral Gales, [Florida]: University of Miami Press, 1972) and Robert L. Gale, Thomas Crawford, American Sculptor ([Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania]: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1964). For a good catalogue of Crawford's work, see Lauretta Dimmick, "A Catalogue of the Portrait Busts and Ideal Works of Thomas Crawford (1813?-1857), American Sculptor in Rome," unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 1986.

[33]The villa was built in the 1560's for Felice Peretti di Montalto, later cardinal, and then Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590). After his death, it passed into the hands of the ancient Roman princely family of Savelli, who, in turn, sold it to the Negroni family, from whom it derived its name in the Crawford's time. At the close of the eighteenth century, the Negroni sold it to Giuseppe Staderini. Sadly, the Renaissance villa was pulled down soon after Italian unification to make room for the Stazione Termini, the principal railway station in Rome.

[34]Pilkington, 18.

[35]Pilkington, 17.

[36]Richards and Elliott, I:262; Pilkington, 20.

[37]Luther Terry was born in Enfield, Connecticut, on July 18, 1813. He studied portrait-painting for a short time in Hartford, and then, in 1838, he went to Italy, where he spent the remainder of his life. He studied for a year at the Academia delle belle Arti in Florence, then went to Rome. There, he began his career by making copies of the works of Raphael. His more important works include The Loves of the Angels, from Byron's "Heaven and Earth" (1843-1844); Columbus before Ferdinand and Isabella; and several versions of Jacob's Dream. He and Louisa had two children, Margaret Terry (born August 6, 1862) and Arthur Noel Wurtz Terry (born December 25, 1864). He died in Rome, on November 17, 1900, and was buried next to Louisa (who died September 21, 1897) in the Protestant Cemetery. For a notice of the marriage and children, see Pilkington, 20. For brief notices of his life and career, see James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, 6 vols. (New York, D. Appleton and Co., 1889-1900) v. 6, s. v. Terry; and Thomas William Herringshaw,  Herringshaw's Encyclopedia of American Biography of the Nineteenth Century: Accurate and Succinct Biographies of Famous Men and Women in All Walks of Life Who Are or Have Been the Acknowledged Leaders of Life and Thought of the United States Since its Formation (Chicago, Illinois: American Publishers' Association, 1898) 921. See also the notice in George C Groce and David H Wallace, The New-York Historical Society's Dictionary of Artists in America, 1564-1860 (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1957).

[38]Richards and Elliott, I;254; Pilkington, 22-23.

[39]Pilkington, 22-34; DAB, IV:519.

[40]Pilkington, 35-52.

[41]Sadly, perhaps, of all his works, only a few of his more horrific short stories are read widely today, notably "The Upper Berth,"  "The Screaming Skull," "For the Blood is the Life," "The Doll's Ghost," and "Man Overboard!"

[42]See the extensive critical discussions of his novels, critical writings, and non-fiction in Pilkington. See also John Charles Moran, An F. Marion Crawford Companion (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1981), a massive and valuable contribution to Crawford scholarship. The best and most vivid memoir of F. Marion Crawford was written twenty years after his death by his cousin, Maud Howe Elliott, the daughter of Julia Ward Howe: Maud Howe Elliott, My Cousin, F. Marion Crawford (New York, The Macmillan Company, 1934).

[43]Corleone was first serialized in Munsey's Magazine (XVI-XVIII: February, 1897, to February, 1898), and then published in a two-volume set simultaneously in London and New York by Macmillan in November, 1897. It was reprinted several times. Macmillan last did so in 1919. See the brief critical discussion in Pilkington, 133 and 208 n. 7.

[44]The best biography thus far is Roy M. Marcot and Gerald Denning, Civil War Chief of Sharpshooters Hiram Berdan: Military Commander and Firearms Inventor (Irvine, California: Northwood Heritage Press, 1989). See also Wiley Sword, Sharpshooter: Hiram Berdan, His Famous Sharpshooters, and their Sharps Rifles (Lincoln, Rhode Island: A. Mowbray, 1988). A good, short sketch of his life and career is Lyman L. Woodman, "Hiram Berdan, Chief of the Sharpshooters," in American Rifleman (March, 1951). For Berdan's Sharpshooters at Gettysburg, see Michael L. Fahle, The Best the Union Could Muster: The True Story of Berdan's U. S. Sharpshooters at the Battle of Gettysburg (Lindsey, Ohio: Greencoat Productions, 1998), with bibliographical references.

[45]For an extensive discussion of the Kimball and Huntington families and their heritage, see Leonard Allison Morrison and Stephen Paschall Sharples, History of the Kimball Family in America, from 1634 to 1897: and of its Ancestors the Kemballs or Kemboldes of England: with an Account of the Kembles of Boston, Massachusetts, 2 vols. (Boston: Damrell & Upham, 1897). Elizabeth Christophers Berdan had an elder sister, Sarah, who married into the French aristocracy, and a brother, Howard, who died unmarried in early manhood, but who bequeathed his name to the Crawfords. Her aunt, Lucy Young Kimball, married Levi Parsons Morton, minister to France, vice-president of the United States, and governor of New York.

[46]Pilkington, 74-76.

[47]The Palazzo Altemps deserves a note here, to give some idea of F. Marion Crawford's environment, which provided so much of the inspiration for his books. In antiquity, the site was occupied by the quarters of the marble workers in Rome, and a building there, near the Temple of Apollo, may have been a marble warehouse. Later, a fortress on the spot marked the border between the warring families of Colonna and Orsini. In 1477, the present palace was begun as the Roman residence of Giolamo Riario (1443-1488), the nephew of Pope Sixtus IV. The first phase of the construction was completed in 1480. In 1511, the palace was purchased by Cardinal Francesco Soderini di Volterra, who added considerably to the structure, and lived there until a year before his death in 1524. Afterwards, the building passed through several hands until, oddly enough, a German prelate made it his home and in whose family it remained until the mid-nineteenth century. The later part of the story begins with the marriage of Chiara Medici, of Milan not Florence, to Wolfgang Dietrich, Graf von Hohenembs, who came from a family that was well establish in the upper ranges of the Ems valley from the eleventh century. In the count's castle (not far from the Teutoberger Wald, where the Romans were crushed by Arminius in 9 A. D.), on August 30, 1533, Chiara gave birth to her second son, Markus Sittich von Hohenembs. The boy's future changed dramatically on December 26, 1559, when Chiara's brother, Giovanni Angelo, surprisingly was elected pope, as Pius IV. He immediately called for two of his nephews to come to Rome: Carlo Borromeo, later cardinal, archbishop of Milan, and saint; and Markus, who quickly Italianized his name to Marco Sittico Altemps. His uncle quickly made him bishop of Cassano, and then, on February 26, 1561, Cardinal-Priest of the title of Santi Dodici Apostoli. Cardinal Altemps was a very reluctant prelate, but certainly enjoyed the perquisites of his rank, including his ability to collect both a massive library and a famous gallery of sculpture. He also collected a mistress, Olivia Giganti, who presented him with a son, Roberto, first duke of Gallese, on April 20, 1566. After the birth of his child, Marco Sittico began to search more eagerly for a Roman residence in which to house all his collections. In 1568, he bought the palace of Girolamo Riario and Francesco Soderini. It was, after all, a magnificent building, on which at least three of the greatest Italian Renaissance architects had worked -- Antonio di Sangallo the Elder, Baldassarre Peruzzi, and Martino Longhi the Elder. After the cardinals death, on February 15, 1595, the palace was inherited by his grandson, Giannangelo, and then remained in the family, still home to the great library and collection of sculpture, for another two hundred and fifty years. Today, it is the Museo Nazionale Romano, after its restoration in the 1990's. For more about the great building and its families, see Francesco Scoppola and Stella Diana Vordemann, Palazzo Altemps (Milano: Electa, 1997) and Francesco Scoppola, A. Maresca Compagna, and G. L. Vimercati Sanseverino, Palazzo Altemps: Indagini per il Restauro della Fabbrica Riario, Soderini, Altemps (Roma: De Luca, 1987). For a catalogue of what remained of the great library of Cardinal Altemps by the early twentieth century, see Giovanni Angelo Altemps, duca di Gallese, Catalogue des Livres et Manuscrits Composant la Bibliothèque des Ducs d'Altemps (Rome: D. G. Rossi, 1908).

[48]Pilkington, 91-88, DAB, 5:698. Soon, the Crawfords lavish life, many parties and entertainments, and munificent gifts, caused some to nickname him the "Prince of Sorrento," which pleased him very much. See Elliott, My Cousin, 206.

[49]Pilkington, 85. She grew up to marry (1908) Conte Pietro Rocca, a member of the local impoverished aristocracy who was a career officer in the Italian army, and became the Contessa Marion-Crawford Rocca. Before she died in 1967, she contributed details about her family to several biographers of Crawford, including Robert L. Gale (see note 32, above), who acquired F. Marion Crawford's papers through her, and John Pilkington, Jr.. The Crawford papers are now in the Houghton Library at Harvard University. After Eleanor’s death, the Villa Crawford passed into the hands of her son, Don Onorio Marion-Crawford Rocca, a priest. He, in turn, donated the house to a local order of nuns in return for care in his old age. The Villa Crawford is now a convent. Email from Professor Alessandra Contenti, University of Rome, March 11, 2003.

[50]Pilkington, 85, and 202 note 8. He first used the style in a letter to his mother, dated March 2, 1886. The legal change in the United States came in 1902, when he petitioned the Supreme Court of New York on behalf of himself and his children. For details, see the New York Times (March 25, 1902), under "Legal Notices."

[51]Pilkington, 91, 93. Bertram became a well-known tennis player. He married Eva Barbara Edwina Stanhope (1890-1977), daughter of the Honorable Lincoln Edwin Stanhope, and granddaughter of Charles Wyndham Stanhope, seventh Earl of Harrington. He died in 1952 without living heirs. Clare cared for her father through the last years of his life, and then joined the Roman convent of a recently-founded Spanish religious order, the Ancillae Cordis Jesu (Handmaids of the Sacred Heart of Jesus). Mother Clare Marion-Crawford died after 1967.

[52]Pilkington, 184. F. Marion Crawford is buried in Sorrento. The commune of Sant'Agnello di Sorrento subsequently named a second street for him, the Via Marion Crawford.

[53]The Washington Post (October 17, 1907), p. 12, col. 6. Bertram, after some difficulties with the entrance examinations (Pilkington, 181), did go to Oxford.

[54]Pilkington, 181.

[55]His name is to be found on the plaque in the Harvard Memorial Church that is dedicated to the seventeen members of the class of 1911 who were killed in action. See the image at: http://www.memorialchurch.harvard.edu/history/ww1.shtml. Alan Seeger's name is to be found just above (class of 1910).

[56]The whole romantic story is captured in five short paragraphs in The Washington Post (May 9, 1911), p. 7, cols. 5-6. Her third name, Leslie, is not that given in later references, where she is named Nina Noreen Mary. She was not, perhaps, the average chorus girl. Her father was a commander in the Royal Navy, C. W. Wood. See the references in the biographical articles on her second husband, Lieutenant Colonel George Rowlandson Crosfield, in note 62, below.

[57]See note 45, above.

[58]See the death notice in The Times (April 23, 1915), p. 1, col. 2, under "Killed in Action." See also an e-mail from David Hughes (igbograt1914@cs.com, July 28, 2001), reprinted on the World Connect Project at www.rootsweb.com under the entry for Harold Marion-Crawford in the genealogy of Aaron Crawford. Second Lieutenant H. F. Marion-Crawford is buried in the Guards Cemetery, Windy Corner, Cuinchy, Pas de Calais, France. His grave number is I. F. 14. Cuinchy is a village in the Pas de Calais, about seven kilometers east of the town of Bethune, and north of the N41 road, which runs between Bethune and La Bassee. About one kilometer north-west of the village is the crossroads known as Windy Corner. The Guards Cemetery is a little to the west of this. Originally, a little to the west of Windy Corner, was a house used as the Battalion Headquarters and Dressing Station. The cemetery grew up beside this house. The original cemetery is now Plots I and II and Rows A to S of Plot III. It was begun by the Second Division in January, 1915, and used extensively by the Fourth (Guards) Brigade in, and after, February. It was closed at the end of May, 1916, when it contained 681 graves. After the Armistice it was increased by 2,720 graves that were moved from neighboring battlefields and small cemeteries, particularly those from the battlefields of Neuve-Chapelle, the Aubers Ridge, and Festubert. Information from the Commonwealth Graves Commission.

[59]See Betjeman's essay, "Clifton College Buildings," in Centenary Essays on Clifton College, N[icholas] G[eoffrey] L[emprière] Hammond (1907-2001), ed. ([Clifton]: Published for the Council of Clifton College by J. W. Arrowsmith, 1962) 21-27.

[60]Other Old Clintonians include Sir Arthur Thomas Quiller-Couch ("Q"); Field Marshall Sir Douglas Haig, subsequently the first Earl Haig; and Field Marshall Sir William Riddell Birdwood, subsequently first Baron Birdwood of Anzac and Totnes.

[61]See the announcement of their engagement in The Times (September 10, 1925), p. 15, col. 3, under "Forthcoming Marriages," and the wedding notices in The Times (November 5, 1925), p. 17, col. 4., and (November 6, 1925), p. 1, col. 1, under "Marriages."

[62]George Rowlandson Crosfield was born on April 29, 1877, the third son of John Crosfield of Walton Lea, Warrington, in Lancashire. His father was mayor of Warrington in 1882-1883. He went to Harrow, where Winston Churchill was a classmate. In the Boer War, he commanded the 77th Company, Imperial Yeomanry, for which he received the Queen's Medal with five clasps. After his return to England, he became deputy chairman of Joseph Crosfield & Sons, Limited, of Warrington, a family-owned soapery and chemical manufacturing business (now a part of INEOS). He resumed military life when World War I began, and went to France in February, 1915, as second-in-command of the Fourteenth South Lancashire Regiment. Later, he commanded the Second Battalion of The Suffolk Regiment (the 2nd Suffolks) and the Tenth Battalion of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers (the 10th RWF), as well. In March, 1916, his leg was amputated as a result of a wound he received at St Eloi. For his service, he received the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) — and later, in 1931, the rank of Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE). Once he recovered and had mastered his prosthesis, he was recommissioned, this time in the Royal Air Force, and passed as Observer in 1918. After the war, he served as national chairman of the British Legion, and chairman of the Not Forgotten Association. In addition to his British decorations, he was an officer of the Legion of Honor, a Commander of the Order of the White Lion of Czechoslovakia, and a Commander of Order of the Star of Rumania. He died on August 22, 1962. See the entries in the 1958 edition of Who's Who (London: Adam and Charles Black, 1958) and Kelly's Handbook to the Titled, Landed and Official Classes, 1956, 82nd edition (Kingston-upon-Thames: Kelly's Directories, 1956). See also his obituaries in The Times (August 23, 1962), p. 1, col. 5; p. 10, col. 5; (August 24, 1962), p. 10, col. 5. The Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress has a photograph, dated 1918, that has the caption: "World War Disabled Veteran Heroes in Spite of Their Handicaps Play Par Golf." The descriptive abstract for the picture states: "Colonel Charles R. Crosfield, who uses an artificial leg, and Gen. James A. Drain, who has only one arm, in golf match at the Washington Golf and Country Club" (Library of Congress, National Photo Company Collection, Card Number: 90-715525). For his family, see "Descent of George Crosfield of Warrington and Lancaster from Thomas Crosfield of Beetham, 1651-1820", in The British Archivist (1913), Supplement 2, Pedigrees.

[63]Released in the United States as Born for Glory; and later reissued in Britain as Forever England. See the Internet Movie Data Base at www.imdb.com  [hereafter IMDB], and Evelyn Mack Truitt, Who Was Who on Screen, 3rd ed. (New York: R. R. Bowker Company, 1983), 158.

[64]C[ecil] S[cott] Forester, Brown on Resolution (London, John Lane, 1929); published simultaneously in the United States under the title Single-handed (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1929).

[65]Freedom Radio, a well-played film with Clive Brook as a "decent German" who is Hitler's physician, was released in the United States as A Voice in the Night. Night Train to Munich, starring Margaret Lockwood, Rex Harrison, and Paul Henried, was also shown as Gestapo and Night Train. The Guv'nor,  another Michael Balcon production, starring George Arliss, was released in America as Mister Hobo. See IMDB, and Truitt, 158.

[66]See the mention of this in his obituary in The Times (November 26, 1969), p. 12, col. 7.

[67]Ibid.; and, for his rank, see The Times (May 12, 1942), p. 1, col. 1.

[68]For the birth notice, see The Times (May 12, 1942), p. 1, col. 1. Later, he dropped his hyphenated surname and was known simply as Harold Crawford. In young manhood, he emigrated to Florida, then to Big Bear, California. He served in the United States Navy (1960-1962), married, and fathered six children. He died in an accident in Providence, Rhode Island, on May 19, 1975, just a few days after his thirty-third birthday. For a notice of his death, see the Social Security Death Index, under the Social Security Account Number 266-62-8433.

[69]She was born on March 19, 1924, at 60 Carlton Avenue, Kenton, Middlesex, the second daughter of Nelson Norman and Ida Margaret Wimbush [The Times (March 25, 1924), p. 1, col. 1]. Later, the family resided at "The Chalet," Berkhamsted. For her engagement to Marion-Crawford, see The Times (June 21, 1946), p. 7, col. 3. For a notice of the wedding, see The Times (July 2, 1946), p. 1, col. 1. She has worked steadily for BBC radio for more than sixty years, since the days when she first met Howard Marion-Crawford. Today, she is best known as the voice of Julia Pargetter in the long-running BBC radio series, The Archers. She was awarded the Sony Radio Award for best actress in 1991, for her performances in The Horse's Mouth and The Mystery of Edwin Drood. See also IMDB.

Her best known moment in the theater was as Edna Shaft in the first run of Simon Gray's play, Butley, directed by Harold Pinter, which opened in London at The Criterion on July 14, 1971. Her film career is marked by an early outstanding success, as the mother, Mary Smith, in Lord Attenborough's Oh! What a Lovely War in 1969. For this, she was nominated for the award for best actress in the 1969 British Film Awards.

[70]Apparently, no birth notice was published. For a notice of him, see The Times (November 24, 1969), p. 22, col. 2. In early 2003, he is still living. He married and is the father of two sons.

[71] His son, Harold Marion-Crawford, remembered accompanying his father on some of these excursions. His most vivid memory of these trips was that the front lawn at Chequers was immense, which certainly was an easy impression for a small boy from Kensington to form. Email from Mrs. Dawn Crawford, Harold’s daughter-in-law, Monday, March 10, 2003.

[72]The radio script was by John Dickson Carr. When Crawford appeared himself as Dr. Watson on television in 1954-1955, he joined a select group of about ten performers who have played both Holmes and Watson. The others include Reginald Owen, Carleton Hobbs, Tim Pigott-Smith, Dinsdale Landen, John Moffatt, Crawford Logan, Edward Woodward, Patrick Macnee, and Jeremy Brett (posting by Mattias Boström, 2001, to the Hounds of the Internet mailing list, with details of performances). Finlay Currie had been Dr. Watson before, in an earlier "Speckled Band," also with Carr's script, which had been broadcast on the BBC Home Service, with Sir Cedric Hardwicke as Holmes, on May 17, 1945.

[73]The Times (November 25, 1969), p. 12, col. 7. The award was presented on Sunday, February 1, 1953. The "Personality of the Year" was  Gilbert Harding; the "Outstanding Actor", Howard Marion-Crawford;  the "Outstanding Actress", Gladys Young; the "Most Popular Musical Entertainer," Tom Jenkins; the "Most Entertaining Programme," Educating Archie; and the "Most Promising New Programme," The Al Read Show. See Brian David Williams, The Diary of a Birmingham Schoolboy, 1953: Brian David Williams at King Edward's School, Birmingham at the URL: web.ukonline.co.uk/brian.david.williams/1953.htm.

[74]In The Rake's Progress (1945), with Rex Harrison and Lilli Palmer, he was uncredited in the walk-on part of a Coldstream Guardsman. He was the first paratrooper in the opening segment of Man on the Run in 1948; and he was Tommy in The Hasty Heart (1949), a tearjerker about a dying soldier in Burma in 1945. In La Rosa di Bagdad (The Rose of Baghdad, also The Singing Princess, 1949), an Italian fantasy-animation created by Antongino Domeneghini, he did better — as the Narrator, opposite Julie Andrews, who did the voice of the heroine, Princess Zeila. In Mr. Drake's Duck (1951), with Douglas Fairbanks, Junior, he plays Major Travers, frantically searching for the duck that laid a uranium egg in this pseudoscience comedy. Also in 1951, he played the minor rôle of Cranford, opposite Alex Guiness in The Man in the White Suit, a much more successful film venture into pseudoscience. In the following year, he was the proprietor of the tea shop in His Excellency. Next came the part of Sir Frank Chesney in the film version of the George Abbott-Frank Loesser musical comedy, Where's Charley, starring Ray Bolger, reprising his best-known stage performance. In 1953, he was Dickson in the oddball public-school comedy, Top of the Form, which also featured Anthony Newley as Percy. Then came the uncredited walk-on as Simon in MGM's first Cinemascope picture, Knights of the Round Table, an all-star Arthurian disaster. By contrast, Howard Marion-Crawford may have been the best-known member of the cast in West of Zanzibar (1954), an African adventure thriller that is still worth watching. His second film in 1954 had him in the part of Travers in Basil Dearden's charming Ealing horse-racing comedy, The Rainbow Jacket, with Robert Morley and Wilfrid Hyde-White. Later in the same year, he appeared in Gilbert Harding Speaking of Murder, as McGowan in Five Days (released in the United States as Paid to Kill), and as Fluffy Fauersham in a silly comedy, Don't Blame the Stork. See IMDB, and Truitt, 158.

[75]Reynolds (1925 – January 25, 2003) already was producing the long-running series, Foreign Intrigue, for the American market. The series, which used mostly French and Swedish crews for production, had proven the feasibility of creating shows in Europe for showing in the United States. Later, he would produce another Sherlock series, with considerable Polish support.

[76]Nicole Charlotte Pierette Schneider (born 1920) was the daughter of Paul Schneider and his wife, Marguerite Durand. She first married Henri Millinaire, and then (on September 4, 1960) John Robert Russell, thirteenth Duke of Bedford (1917-2002). For her memoir of her work on the series, see the chapter entitled "Sherlock Holmes" in  Nicole Russell, Duchess of Bedford, Nicole Nobody: The Autobiography of the Duchess of Bedford (London: W. H. Allen, 1974; reprinted Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday, 1975; reprinted London: Star Books, 1975). For the French translation, see Nicole Nobody, trans. by Emmanuelle de Lesseps (Paris: B. Grasset, 1974); for the German edition, see Der Sommer, der nicht wiederkehrt: die Erinnerungen der Herzogin von Bedford, trans. by Gerhard Vorkamp (München: Kindler, 1975). For another sprightly view of her method of getting things done, see La Duchesse de Bedford et Shirley Conran, Superwoman: ou, Comment avoir le Maximum d'Efficacité avec le Minimum d'Effort (Paris: Grasset, 1977).

[77] Paul Jules Durand (born 1907) was a leading figure in French popular orchestral music in the post-war years. He recorded with such stars of the time as Edith Piaf, Maurice Chevalier, Jacqueline François, and Yvonne Printemps. For some years, he and his orchestra appeared on the popular radio show, This Is Europe, with Lou Van Burg (who appeared in episode 5 of the New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, “The Case of the Belligerent Ghost”). Among his many songs are "After You," "The Memory Song," "And So These Tears," "These Chains," and "Playing with the Seals." Among his light orchestral works are Prelude Orientale, Medierranean Fresco, Tarantelle, and, especially, Andalusian Fresco. For a score of the last, see Paul Jules Durand, Andalusian Fresco, arranged by Floyd E. Werle (New York: Mills Music, 1965), 8 pages with 65 parts. The theme music for The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, "Baker Street Sketches," was copyrighted in the United States on November 30, 1954 (EP-85-174, renewed on November 5, 1982, as RE-141-647). In 1978, an edition was published by Leeds Music Corporation, New York, New York; and reprinted in 2000 by Universal/MCA Music Publishing, a division of Universal Studios, Incorporated, Los Angeles, California.

[78] The series always was broadcast on Monday evenings, between 7:00 and 7:30 P. M.. Unless listed otherwise, the roducer and director was Sheldon Reynolds. The complete run was: Episode 1: "The Case of the Cunningham Heritage" (October 18, 1954) produced and written by Sheldon Reynolds, directed by Jack Gage, with Archie  Duncan (Inspector Lestrade), Meg Lemonnier, Ursula Howells, Pierre Gay, and Richard Larke; Episode 2: "The Case of Lady Beryl" (October 25, 1954) with Paulette Goddard (Lady Beryl) and Peter Copley; Episode 3: "The Case of the Pennsylvania Gun" (November 1, 1954) with Russel Waters, Maurice Teynac, and Frank Dexter;  Episode 4: "The Case of the Texas Cowgirl" (November 8, 1954); Episode 5: "The Case of the Belligerent Ghost" (November 15, 1954) with Lou Van Burg, Gertrude Flynn, and Cecil Brock; Episode 6: "The Case of the Shy  Ballerina" (November 22, 1954) with Nathalie Schafer and Eugene Decker; Episode 7: "The Case of the Winthrop Legend" (November 29, 1954) with Peter Copley, Ivan Desney, and Charles Perry; Episode 8: "The Case of Blind Man's Bluff" (December 6, 1954, repeated August 1, 1955) with Archie Duncan (Inspector Lestrade); Episode 9: "The Case of Harry Crocker" (December 13, 1954) with Eugene Decker, Harris Town, and Aki Yanai; Episode 10:

"The Mother Hubbard Case" (December 20, 1954) with Amy Dalby, Delphine Setrig, and Billy Beck; Episode 11: "The Case of the Red-Headed League" (December 27, 1954, repeated August 8, 1955) with Alexander Gauge, Eugene Deckers, Colin Drake, and Richard Fitzgerald; Episode 12: "The Case of the Shoeless Engineer" (January 3, 1955); Episode 13: "The Case of the Split Ticket" (January 10, 1955, repeated August 15, 1955); Episode 14:  "The Case of the French Interpreter" (January 17, 1955) with Lou Van Berg, Rob Cunningham, and Charles Brodie; Episode 15: "The Case of the Singing Violin" (January 24, 1955, repeated August 22, 1955) with Arnold Bell and Delphine Setrig; with Delphine Seyrig (Betty), Arnold Bell (Guy Durham), Colin Mann (Jimmy), and Ben

Omanoff (Dr. Moreno); Episode 16: "The Case of the Greystone Inscription" (January 31, 1955, repeated August 29, 1955) produced by Sheldon Reynolds, with Archie Duncan (Inspector Lestrade), Martina Mayne, Tony Wright, and Eric Micklewood; Episode 17: "The Case of the Laughing Mummy" (February 7, 1955, repeated September 5, 1955) produced by Sheldon Reynolds, with Barry Mackay (Reggie Taunton), June Elliott (Rowena), Lois Perkins Marechal (Aunt Agatha), Frederick O'Brady (Prof. Caulkins), and Colin Maun (Porter); Episode 18: "The Thistle Killer" (February 14, 1955) produced by Sheldon Reynolds; Episode 19: "The Case of the Vanished Detective" February 21, 1955) produced by Sheldon Reynolds; Episode 20: "The Case of the Careless Suffragette" (February 28, 1955) produced by Sheldon Reynolds, directed by Jack Gage and Sheldon Reynolds, and written by Charles and

Joseph Early, with Archie Duncan (Inspector Lestrade), Dawn Addams (Doreen), Kenneth Richards (Sergeant), David Thomson (Henry), Margaret Russell (Agatha), and Frederick O'Brady (Boris Turgoff); Episode 21: "The Case of the Reluctant Carpenter" (March 7, 1955, repeated September 12, 1955) produced by Sheldon Reynolds, with Pierre Gay (Bricker), Kenneth Richards (Sergeant), Henry Hubner (Guard), and Donald Kotite (Chemist); Episode 22: "The Deadly Prophecy" (March 14, 1955) with Nicole Courcel, Maurice Teynac, Helena Manson, and Robert LeBeal; Episode 23: "The Christmas Pudding" (April 4, 1955, repeated September 26, 1955) produced by Sheldon Reynolds, directed by Steve Previn, written by George and Gertrude Fass, with Eugene Deckers (John

Norton), June Rodney (Bess Norton), and Richard Watson (Governor); Episode 24: "The Night-Train Riddle" (April 11, 1955, repeated October 3, 1955) with Roberta Haynes, Sonny Doran, and Richard Watson; Episode

25: "The Case of the Violent Suitor" (April 18, 1955); Episode 26: "The Case of the Baker Street Nursemaids" (April 25, 1955) produced, written, and directed by Sheldon Reynolds, with Roger Treville and Dominique Williams; Episode 27: "The Case of the Perfect Husband" (May 2, 1955, repeated July 25 and October 10, 1955) with Mary Sinclair (Janet Partridge), Michael Gough (Russel Partridge), and Carl Saroyan; Episode 28: "The Case of the Jolly Hangman" (May 9, 1955); Episode 29: "The Case of the Imposter Mystery" (May 16, 1955); Episode 30: "The Case of the Eiffel Tower" (May 23, 1955) written by Roger E. Garris, with Martine Alexis (Singer) and Sacha Piteoff; Episode 31: "The Case of the Exhumed Client" (May 30, 1955) written by Charles and Joseph Early, with Alvys Maben; Episode 32: "The Case of the Impromptu Performance" (June 6, 1955) written by Joe Morhaim, with Richard Larke, Richard O'Sullivan, Kenneth Richards, Patrick Shelley, and Eugene Deckers; Episode 33: “The Case of the Baker Street Bachelors" (June 20, 1955) directed by Steve Previn and written by Joseph Victor, with Duncan Elliot, Penny Portrait, Alys Maben, and Seymour Grenn; Episode 34: "The Case of the Royal Murder" (June 27, 1955) written by Charles and Joseph Early, with Jacques Decqmine (King Conrad), Lise Dourdin (Princess Antonio), Maurice Teynac (Prince Stephan), Jacques Francois (Count Magor), and Christine Paray (Gypsy); Episode 35: "The Case of the Haunted Gainsborough" (July 4, 1955) produced by Sheldon Reynolds, directed by Steve Previn, written by Charles and Joseph Early, with Archie Duncan (Malcolm McGreggan), Cleo Rose (Heather), John Buckmaster (McLeish), Zac Matalon (Archie Ross), and Roger E. Garris

(Sam Scott); Episode 36: "The Case of the Neurotic Detective" (July 11, 1955) written by Joe Morhaim, with Kenneth Richards (Wilkins), Seymour Green (Commissioner), June M. Crawford (Jennifer Ames), Russ Caprio

(Toby Judson), Eugene Deckers (Dr. A. Fishblade), and James R. Richman (Young Man); Episode 37: "The Case of the Unlucky Gambler" (July 18, 1955) produced by Sheldon Reynolds, directed by Steve Previn, and written by Joe Morhaim, with Archie Duncan (Insepctor Lestrade), Richard Larke (Wilkins), Richard O'Sullivan (Andy Fenwick), Duncan Elliot (Jack Driscoll), John Buckmaster (Bartender), Zach Metalone (Briggs), Russ Caprio (Manager), Rowland Bartrop (Herbert Fenwick), Rowland Bartrop (Herbert Fenwick), Kenneth Richards (Sgt. Watkins), and J. Seyfort (Patron); Episode 38: "The Case of the Diamond Tooth" (September 19, 1955) with Charles Bronson and Suzanne Avon; Episode 39: "The Case of the Tyrant's Daughter" (October 17, 1955). Cf. entries C21075--A5510 through C21113--A5548, consecutively, in Ronald Burt De Waal, The Universal Sherlock Holmes, ed. by George A. Vanderburgh, 5 vols. ([Toronto, Ontario, and] Shelburne, Ontario, Canada: Metropolitan Toronto Reference Library, 1994), with some errors and omissions.

[79]The opening credits billed Howard Marion-Crawford as H. Marion Crawford, presumably to avoid the oddity of having the name "Howard" appear twice, and perhaps to avoid the slightest comment on a hyphenated surname, which was then most uncommon in the United States.

[80]Meg Lemonnier was born on April, 1908, in London, She made her She made her screen debut in 1931, and had performed in thirty-one films when she made her appearance in "The Case of the Cunningham Heritage." Perhaps her best-known part was that of Suzanne in Georges et Georgette in 1933. She also was a star of the Parisian musical stage. In her last film, Maxime (1958), starring Charles Boyer, and directed by Henri Verneuil, she played again with her friend, Richard Larke, in the roles of Eva and Frank Allison. For Gay's superb translation, see Noel Coward, Present Laughter, translated by André Roussin and Pierre Gay as Joyeux Chagrins: comedie gaie en 3 actes et 4 tableaux de Noel Coward, in Les Oeuvres Libres, CCLVIII [nouv. ser., no. 32 (1949)] (Paris, A. Fayard, 1949), pp. [225]-318. Ursula Howells was born on September 17, 1922, as the first child of  Herbert Howells and his wife, Dorothy Evalyn Goozee. She made her debut in the television production of Ronald Millar's play, Frieda, in 1946. Two years later, she was the first television Cordelia, playing opposite William Devlin as King Lear. Although she had made more than twenty films, it is her television work that has brought her fame. Her best work is in television adaptations of notable novels, including Frances Forsyte in The Forsyte Saga (1967) and Adeline in Cousin Bette (1971) ¾ see IMDB. She remains active in her ninth decade. Recently, she played Kitty Cazalet in The Cazalets, shown on Masterpiece Theater in the United States in 2001. Herbert Howells' (1892-1983) first appointment, as sub-organist at Salisbury Cathedral, was brief, then, after a long illness, he became a teacher at the Royal College of Music, where he remained for more than fifty years. Through the war years, he also was the organist at Saint John's College, Cambridge; and, in 1950, he was appointed King Edward VII Professor of Music at the University of London. Howells reputation today as the greatest composer of Anglican church music in the twentieth century rests generally on works he composed later in life. His earlier work, chamber music, songs and orchestral works, is now regarded as less important than it was in an earlier generation. The great tragedy of his life was the sudden death of his younger child, Michael, from polio in 1935, when the boy was only eight. It was Ursula, then only twelve, who quietly urged her father to work through his grief in composition — this was the genesis of his choral masterpiece, Hymnus Paradisi. For details of his life and work, see the biographical article on him by Paul Andrews in the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (20 vols.; London, Macmillan Publishers, 1980) 11:770-774. See also

Paul Spicer, Herbert Howells (Bridgend, Wales: Seren, 1998).

[81]*This is the only time that the meeting of the two has been filmed. Only four of the thirty-nine episodes in The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes were based on Conan Doyle's texts. Episode 3, "Case of the Pennsylvania Gun" was derived from that portion of The Valley of Fear that deals with John Douglas' murder; episode 11, "The Case of the Red-Headed League," was based on "The Red-headed League;" episode 12, "The Case of the Shoeless Engineer," was based on "The Adventure of the Engineer's Thumb;" and episode 14, "The Case of the French Interpreter," was based on "The Greek Interpreter."

[82]The only episode to be shown three times in the year was the twenty-seventh, "The Case of the Perfect Husband," which was broadcast on May 2, July 25 (the first repeat), and October 10.

[83]The contemporary reviews include: Edgar W[adsworth] Smith, in The Baker Street Journal, new series, vol. 4, no. 4 (October, 1954), 249-250; Jack Gould, New York Times (October 22, 1954), 36; John Crosby, New York Herald Tribune (January 30, 1955), IV, 1; Dick Osgood, Detroit Free Press (November 2, 1954), 17; Jack Singer, in Billboard, 66 (October 30, 1954), 11; and Don Ross, New York Herald Tribune (March 13, 1955), IV, 6. Reviews of lesser importance appeared in: Look, 18 (September 21, 1954), 59-60; TV Guide, 2 (December 18, 1954), 20-22; and 3 (January 29, 1955), 13; and Variety, 196 (October ,1954), 38. Later valuable appraisals of Howard Marion-Crawford's portrayal of Dr. Watson are: Michael Pointer, in Sherlock Holmes Journal, vol. 10, no. 2 (Summer, 1971), 47-49, the discussion of Howard Marion-Crawford in his series "`Which of You Is Holmes?' A Gallery of Impersonators;" Donald Webster, "Sherlock Holmes on Television," in Investigations, vol. 1, no. 2 (March 1971), 3-7; and David W. Bradley, "The Television Sherlock Holmes," in Three Pipe Problem Plugs and Dottles: Newsletter of the Nashville Scholars of the Three Pipe Problem (February, 1992), 3. Also indispensable are Michael [E.] Pointer, The Public Life of Sherlock Holmes (Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 1975; and New York: Drake Publishers, 1975), with an exhaustive "Catalogue of Performances" (pp. 117-194); and Michael [E.] Pointer, The Sherlock Holmes File (Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1976; reprinted: New York: Clarkson N. Potter, distributed by Crown Publishers, 1976), with "A Checklist of Appearances" (pp. 158-164). Of much less value for Howard Marion-Crawford as Dr. Watson is Peter Haining, The Television Sherlock Holmes (London: W. H. Allen, 1986; rev. ed.,  Secaucus, New Jersey: Virgin Books, distributed in the USA by Carol Publishing Group, 1991; rev. and updated ed., Secaucus, New Jersey: Virgin Publishers, 1994).

[84]These seventeen films were: Reach for the Sky (1956) as 'Woody' Woodhall; The Man in the Sky (1957 — Decision Against Time in the United States) as Ingrams, the Reporter; Ill Met by Moonlight (1957 — also entitled Intelligence Service and, in the United States, Night Ambush) in the uncredited rôle of the British port officer; The Tyburn Case (1957); The Silken Affair (1957) as Baggott; The Birthday Present (1957) as George Bates; Gideon's Day (1958 released in the United States as Gideon of Scotland Yard) as the Chief of Scotland Yard; The Silent Enemy (1958) as a wing commander; uncredited in Nowhere to Go (1958) as Mack Cameron, the club owner; Virgin Island (1958 — released as Our Virgin Island in the United States) as Prescott; Model for Murder (1958) as Inspector Duncan; an uncredited walk-on in North West Frontier (1959 released as Flame Over India in the United States); Life in Danger (1959) as Major Peters; Next to No Time (1960) as Hobbs; Foxhole in Cairo (1961) as a British major; Carry On Regardless (1961) as a wine organizer; and, uncredited, in The Longest Day (1962), his only appearance in a major film, as a doctor. See IMDB. For his appearance in The Tyburn Case, which is not listed in IMDB, see also Truitt, 158.

[85]Truitt, 158.

[86]His performances in these unremarkable films were: Tamahine (1963) as the housemaster; Man in the Middle (1964 — shown in the United States as The Winston Affair) as Major Poole; Secrets of a Windmill Girl (1966) as the rich producer; and The Charge of the Light Brigade (1968) as Lieutenant General Sir George Brown. See IMDB, and Truitt, 158.

[87]In The Avengers, he appeared as Brigadier Ponsonby 'Percy' Goddard in "What the Butler Saw" (episode 4.22, filmed between December 26, 1965, and January 7, 1966; broadcast on February 26, 1966, in Britain, and July 28, 1966, in the United States); Geoffrey, sixteenth Duke of Benedict in "The Living Dead" (episode 5.7, filmed in December, 1966, and January, 1967; broadcast on February 25, 1967, in Britain, and March 5, 1967, in the United States); and Collins in "Stay Tuned" (episode 7.22, filming completed on December 13, 1968; broadcast on February 26, 1969, in Britain, and Fenruary 24, 1969, two days earlier, in the United States). In the second incarnation of Danger Man, the one-hour shows, which appeared in the United States as Secret Agent, his performances were as Commander Collinson in "English Lady Takes Lodgers" (episode 1.25, broadcast in Britain on October 21, 1965, and in the United States on December 11, 1965); Edwin Archer in "Yesterday's Enemies," opposite Joan Hickson (episode 1.6, broadcast in Britain on October 13, 1964, and in the United States on May 15, 1965); and Gregori Benares in "No Marks for Servility" (episode 1.5, broadcast in Britain on December 8, 1964, and in the United States on May 1, 1965). In The Saint, Marion-Crawford was Mr. Portmore in "The Frightened Inn-Keeper" (episode 3.59, broadcast on February 18, 1965) And he was Colonel Davies in the premiere episode of Man in a Suitcase, "Brainwash," which was broadcast on September 27, 1967.

[88]The five poor films in which Marion-Crawford appeared as Dr. Petrie were: The Face of Fu Manchu (1965), also shown as The Mask of Fu Manchu; The Brides of Fu Manchu (1966); The Vengeance of Fu Manchu (1967); The Blood of Fu Manchu (1968), also shown as Against All Odds, Fu Manchu and the Keys of Death, Fu Manchu and the Kiss of Death, Fu Manchu's Kiss of Death, Kiss and Kill, and Kiss of Death; and Die Folterkammer des Dr. Fu Man Chu (1969), also shown as Assignment Istanbul, The Castle of Fu Manchu, Fu Manchu's Castle, and The Torture Chamber of Fu Manchu. See IMDB, and Truitt, 158.

[89]See IMDB.

[90]The Way of a Ship, produced by Howard Thomas, and directed by Terry Ashwood, for Associated British-Pathe

([New York]: Contemporary Films, McGraw-Hill, 1956), 16mm, color. The narration was written by A. P. Herbert, and part of the text was spoken by Colin Willis. A copy is in the collection of the Santa Cruz County Public Library, Nogales, Arizona.

[91]Æschylus, The Oresteia of Æschylus, Part 1, Agamemnon, with Margaret Rawlings as Clytemnestra and Howard Marion-Crawford as Agamemnon, 3 sound discs (London: BBC Transcription Service, 1960), serial numbers 91741-91746. A copy of this exceptional recording is in the Duquesne University Library, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

[92]See the report of Dr. Donald Teare to the Coroner of Westminster, Dr. Gavin Thurston, discussed in The Times (November 29, 1969), p. 2, col. 3. See also his obituary in The Times (November 25, 1969), p. 12, col. 7.

[93]See IMDB and Truitt, 158.

[94]See the notice under "Latest wills," in The Times (February 5, 1971), p. 16, col. 8.